explain the significance of the mestizo

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The final exam will consist of 14 open ended questions, you may pick any 3 of the 14 available questions. ***Making each worth 10 points***
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***Please include the question with the answer, (and please bold the question only), but only include the ones you choose to do.
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**** So you should have only 3 questions/answers in the textbox when you submit the exam.***
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The length of the answers will vary depending on the topic and will be mostly left to your discretion to choose a suitable length that conveys your knowledge of the topic. 3 paragraphs is not nearly enough. That being said, they should be relatively longer than your typical reflection paper. Please keep in mind that this is a final exam and worth 30% of your overall grade. As it is meant to allow me to evaluate your comprehensive knowledge of the topics you choose, they should contain enough analysis to illustrate your understanding the topic.
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Final Exam (Please pick any 3)
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1. The first bands of humans in Texas, The Clovis Culture (Paleo Indians), were one of the first of humans to settle in Texas. They hunted the large game that were still present in Texas upon their arrival. It was a very different culture and overall context compared to what the various and distinct indigenous peoples throughout Texas as well as North America as a whole would become. As what historians study is change over time, if you would, please explain the transition which occurred from these early Paleo Indians to the more specialized and territorial groups we often think of when referring to Native Americans.
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2. Please explain the significance of the mestizo. As the most prevalent gender who traveled to this wilderness in the 16th century was men, it meant the conventional family structure in Spain was lacking at that point. Hence, intermarriage between Spanish and indigenous people was legalized relatively quickly. This led to a new demographic, one that makes up the largest portion of individuals in Mexico and they are a growing number of contemporary U.S citizens. If you would, please explain this development in more depth. What do we call this demographic today, what historical challenges did they face in New Spain and an independent Mexico? This early development is one that has had lasting effects and is a true connection to our society today.
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3. Friars set up missions in New Spain during the early 16th century, some with perhaps a more genuine purpose of conversion to Catholicism. The justification was that their long-term goal was to “improve Indians” by assimilating them into civilized Spanish society and bring them faith. While Texas would remain on the peripheral of Spanish colonization and developments throughout most of the 16th and 17th century, exploration and colonization would slowly expand northward. This would lead to now famous Texas missions such as Mission San Antonio de Valero (Known today as the Alamo), established in 1718. This is a two part question, while such missions had relative success, why were they not wholly successful at converting and assimilating the indigenous peoples of Texas? (Hint: Consider the diversity of indigenous peoples and why they lacked interest, etc.) Secondly, how did they create friction between the local surrounding settlers, at least partially leading to secularization in the latter part of the 1700s? (Hint: Think of the cost incurred by the Spanish Crown and perhaps more important, what equals wealth in an agrarian society such as the Spanish Colonies. Such wealth as, for example, Mission Francisco de la Espada’s goat ranch, Ranch de las Cabras, near present day Floresville)
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4. Mexico’s War for Independence would be what would define that era, beginning in 1810 and concluding in 1821. There were several factors leading to this independence movement. While one should not discount the events taking place in Europe, the economic conditions seen in New Spain, prior to independence, assisted in creating momentum for the independence movement. This was partially based on the dissatisfaction of those who did not have an opportunity for upward mobility in the economy under the rule of Spain. Yet, often we cannot separate economic and social issues, as they effect each other. Please explain how the hierarchal class system (often referred to as the Casta System, ex: Peninsular, Criollo, Mestizo, Indian) in colonial New Spain would result in a lack of socio-economic mobility for various demographics and how that played in role in the Mexican Independence.
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5. History could be described simply as “stepping stones” leading to events that culminate into what one sees today. Consider the metaphor of various stones in a river, depending on which you take, you may end up in a different spot on the bank that may alter the next events in your life. An independent Mexico saw political turmoil between the centralized power in Mexico and the lack of autonomy Mexican citizens who resided in Texas (Tejanos and Texians) saw under that government. (Much like the catalyst that brought about Mexico’s independence from Spain and America’s independence from Britain, prior.) In other words, the question was once again, should what was perceived as a foreign land, be passing laws that affect me? From the beginning of an independent Mexico these factions would be referred to as Centralists and Federalist or those who were pro centralized government control of Mexico and those who were pro states’ rights, respectively. If you would please, explain the political issues in the early 19th century that would lead to the Texas Revolution. Please also included in your argument that at this point in Texas, race was not the fundamental issue.
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6. In terms of the initial goals of the revolt in Texas (led by the Consultation), the primary objective in 1835 was not to declare independence. Nevertheless, there was a division between those who sought an independent Texas and those who preferred to remain part of Mexico, but under the terms of the Constitution of 1824. The convention at Washington on the Brazos would adopt a declaration of independence on March 2, 1836 and a constitution modeled on the U.S., making Texas a republic, on the March 17th. The Texas Constitution was ratified in September. If you would please tell me what catalyst(s) would lead to an ideological change in many, shifting support to independence?
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7. The newly independent nation of Texas would be a republic. It would have an executive, legislative branch, and judicial system. Its citizenry would vote for their representatives and ratified a constitution. Implementing the new government in an effective way for the betterment of society would be a challenge, one that Texas would find daunting until its annexation. If you would please give a comprehensive overview of the challenges facing this new nation in its early years beginning in 1836. (Hint: Santa Anna and the Mexican Congress, debt, and a lack of economic stability, etc).
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8. This will be a two part question. The concept of Manifest Destiny would be one of the catalysts that would push President Polk, a southerner, to seek new territories to incorporate into the U.S., specifically the Mexican held California and New Mexico Territories. With Texas being annexed into the Union, it gave the U.S., specifically President Polk, the perfect context to begin efforts in acquiring these areas from Mexico. Due to a lack of success, this would lead to Polk using a conflict on the Texas/Mexican border as an excuse to ask Congress to declare war on Mexico. Please explain the events on the border that led to this conflict. For the second part of this question, let us consider why Texas joined the Confederacy. Secondly, while Lincoln in reality was not an abolitionist, from the lens of the Southerner (including many Texans, yet not all, such as Sam Houston) Lincoln was an “abolitionist”. If you would, please explain further what I mean, how did the prominent southern ideology in Texas lead to secession? Please included the “Texas Troubles of 1860” in your response.
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9. Texas, while it was readmitted into the Union in 1870 under Congressional Reconstruction, thanks to the enforcement of allowing African Americans to vote as well as Texas ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, still had a long ways to go in terms of the ideological shift towards racial equality as well as overall social progression. Please explain how, despite the multiple policies adopted and steps taken by the federal government during Reconstruction, such as the passage and ratification of the 14th and 15th Amendments as well as the Freedman’s’ Bureau, one of the more significant challenges in Texas was the mindset/culture (ideology) of the people. In other words, describe the political events occurring in Texas as they relate to Reconstruction during this era that were significantly influenced by the people’s beliefs that lived there.
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10. This will be a two part question, the Texas Constitution of 1876 is one that is still in use today, if you would please describe both its origins (what were the catalysts that led to its formation) as well as the overarching goals behind it. In other words, was it a conservative document or progressive? Finally, following the Civil War, one saw that the beginnings of industrialization in Texas took a slow pace. While agriculture would still be the primary focus of the area for some time, the initial steps towards industry were spurred for various reasons, the expansion of rail lines being one of the more important parts of this process. One could describe the expanding railroads (an industry that was comparatively faster in development) as symbiotic to other industries, especially in Texas. Please describe how the growth of the railroads played an integral role in the developments taking place in Texas during the latter part of the 19th century.
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11. The discovery of oil and natural gas would be a major theme in the Texas narrative for the entirety of the 20th century. The proliferation of Texas oil wells and refineries would lead to substantial wealth for many and further economic development. Of course, we have all heard of the Spindletop discovery in 1901. Yet, oil was discovered in Texas by indigenous peoples much earlier. Here we can connect prehistoric Texas all the way to 21st century Texas. If you would, please describe the long-term story of oil, how and when it was formed (organic material buried in sentiment, etc), its uses by certain Indian cultures, and its effects on Texas in the 20th century.
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12. This will be a two part question. Texas saw comparable problems and issues to the rest of the nation during the Great Depression, but the catalysts for many of the challenges in Texas during that time were the oversupply of products that came to define Texas. Please explain how the vast wealth in terms of natural resources and agriculture created a plummet in the state’s economy as the Great Depression came about. Secondly, if you would, please describe what major event brought Texas out of the depression, how federal dollars or infrastructure (beginning in WWI) contributed to the recovery, and how those very same natural resources that created a lull in the economy at the start of the depression worked in favor of the Texas economy during the event.
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13. Post-war Texas saw a change in state politics for many reasons. There were new factions with the same party (Democrats), such as an increasing number of liberals and still large number of conservatives. Texas Democrats such as the future president, Lyndon B. Johnson, who advocated for the greater racial equality would contribute to this trend, but were only one part. Please describe this political change during the post-war era. (Hint: migration of “blue collar” workers from the north into the state, pro-union advocates, and increasing presence of women in politics, etc).
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14. If you would, please describe the evolving Texas economy from the 1980s to the present. This is a two part question, what industries are most prominent in the state, new and old? The Texas economy would continue to grow the latter part of the 20th and early 21st century. Many times this would occur not through new industries, but also through changes to previously existing ones. Additionally, from what sources does the state gets its revenue for public services and how has that evolved as well?
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You may write one page for each of the three questions you choose to write.
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Don’t use any source, share your own knowledge, add your OWN unique analysis in your OWN WORDS if you have any questions please let me know.

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